For more help-seeking resources, including theoryconstructs, and measures, please visit

(* denotes HAMMER Lab student at time of project)

Hammer, J. H., Vogel, D. L., Grzanka, P. R., Kim, N.*, Keum, B. T., Adams, C., & Wilson, S. A. (in press) The Integrated Behavioral Model of Mental Health Help Seeking (IBM-HS): A health services utilization theory of planned behavior for accessing care. Journal of Counseling Psychology. DOI and PDF forthcoming.
Note: Learn more about the Integrated Behavioral Model of Mental Health Help Seeking.

Hammer, J. H., Verty, V. P. A., Hauber, A.*, & Kim, N.* (2024). What attributes of integrated health care for mental health are the most important to potential consumers? A relative ranking study. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. (PDF)

Aspiranti, K. B., Hulac, D. M., Hammer, J. H., & Blake, J. (2023). Reputable and affordable programs with a strong commitment to diversity: Factors influencing school psychology student admission decisions. School Psychology. Advance online publication.

Wright, C. J., Wilson, S. A., Hammer, J. H., Hargis, L. E., Miller, M. E.*, & Usher, E. L. (2023). Mental health in undergraduate engineering students: Identifying facilitators and barriers to seeking help. Journal of Engineering Education, 1– 24. (PDF)

Brenner, R. E., Colvin, K. F., Hammer, J. H., & Vogel, D. L. (2021). Using Item Response Theory to develop Revised (SSOSH-7) and Ultra-Brief (SSOSH-3) Self-Stigma of Seeking Help Scales. Assessment, 28(5), 1488-1499. (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., Perrin, P. B., & Spiker, D. A.* (2021). Impact of integrated care and co-location of care on mental help-seeking perceptions. Journal of Mental Health, 30(4), 405-410. (PDF)

Dschaak, Z. A.*, Spiker, D. A.*, Berney, E. C.*, Miller, M. E.*, & Hammer, J. H. (2021). Collegian help seeking: The role of self-compassion and self-coldness. Journal of Mental Health, 30(3), 284-291. (PDF)

Spiker, D. A.*, & Hammer, J. H. (2021). A model of intention to provide mental health first aid in college students. Journal of Mental Health, 30(3), 276-283. (PDF)

Dschaak, Z. A.*, & Hammer, J. H. (2020). Intention to seek help among three categories of substance-using college students: Which factors matter? Journal of Substance Use, 25(5), 501-506. (PDF)

Levant, R. F., McDermott, R. C., Parent, M. C., Alshabani, N., Mahalik, J., & Hammer, J. H. (2020). Development and evaluation of a new short form of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI-30). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 67(5), 622-636. (PDF)

McDermott, R. C., Borgogna, N. C., Hammer, J. H., Berry, A. T., & Levant, R. F. (2020). More similar than different? Testing the construct validity of men’s and women’s traditional masculinity ideology using the MRNI-VB. Psychology of Men and Masculinities, 21(4), 523-532. (PDF)

Dawson, N.*, & Hammer, J. H. (2020). No pain, no gains: Conformity to masculine norms, body dissatisfaction, and exercise dependence. Psychology of Men and Masculinities, 21(3), 430-440. (PDF)

Spiker, D. A.*, Berney, E. C.*, Hammer, J. H., & Jensen, K. C. (2020). Maintaining the relationship: Relational schemas and women’s intent to seek couple therapy. The Counseling Psychologist, 48(6), 801-825.  (PDF) (Link to TCP Podcast episode about the article)

Hammer, J. H., Wade, N. G. & Cragun, R. T. (2020). Valid assessment of spiritual quality of life with the WHOQOL-SRPB BREF across religious, spiritual, and secular persons: A psychometric study. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(4), 440-450. (PDF) (Link to supplemental material)

Hammer, J. H., & Cragun, R. T. (2019). Daily spiritual experiences and well-being among the nonreligious, spiritual, and religious: A bifactor analysis. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 11(4), 463-473 (PDF) (Link to supplemental material)

McDermott, R. C., Levant, R. L., Hammer, J. H., Borgogna, N. C., & McKelvey, D. K. (2019). Development and validation of a five-item Male Role Norms Inventory using bifactor modeling. Psychology of Men & Masculinities, 20(4), 467-477. (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., & Lazar, A. (2019). Internal Structure and criterion relationships for long and brief versions of the Intratextual Fundamentalism Scale (IFS) among Israeli Jews. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 11(4), 358-367. (PDF)

Spiker, D. A.*, & Hammer, J. H., & Parnell, K. J. (2019). Men in unhappy relationships: Perceptions of couple therapy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36, 2015-2034. (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., Spiker, D. A.*, & Perrin, P. B. (2019). Physician referral to a psychologist: Testing alternative behavioral healthcare seeking models. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 75, 726-741. (PDF)

Spiker, D. A.*, & Hammer, J. H. (2019). Mental health literacy as theory: Current challenges and future directions. Journal of Mental Health, 28, 238-242. (PDF)

Kivlighan, D. M., III, Jung, A. K., Berkowitz, A., Hammer, J. H., & Collins, N. M. (2019) ‘To show or no-show’? Therapist racial/ethnic disparities in clients’ nonattendance in therapy. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 33, 1-13.  (PDF)

Rostosky, S., Cardom, J. D., Hammer, J. H., & Riggle, D. B. (2018). LGB positive identity and psychological well-being. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 5, 482-489. doi: 10.1037/sgd0000298

Lazar, A., & Hammer, J. H. (2018). Religiousness and anti-gay/lesbian attitudes: The mediating function of intratextual religious fundamentalism. Psychology of Violence, 8, 763-771. doi: 10.1037/vio0000197

Hammer, J. H., Heath, P. J., & Vogel, D. L. (2018). Fate of the total score: Dimensionality of the Conformity to Masculine Role Norms Inventory (CMNI-46). Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19, 645-651. doi: 10.1037/men0000147 (PDF) >Video Summary<

Hammer, J. H., & Spiker, D. A.* (2018). Dimensionality, reliability, and predictive evidence of validity for three help seeking intention instruments: ISCI, GHSQ, and MHSIS. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65, 394-401. doi: 10.1037/cou0000256 (PDF)
Note: Learn more about the Mental Help Seeking Intention Scale (MHSIS).

Hammer, J. H., & Parent, M. C., & Spiker, D. A.* (2018). Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS): Development, reliability, validity, and comparison with the ATSSPH-SF and IASMHS-PO. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65, 74-85. doi: 10.1037/cou0000248 (PDF)
Note: Learn more about the Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS).

Hammer, J. H., & McDermott, R. C., Levant, R. F., & McKelvey, D. K. (2018). Dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the Gender Role Conflict Scale – Short Form (GRCS-SF). Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19, 570-583. doi: 10.1037/men0000131g (PDF)

Cragun, R. T., Hammer, J. H., Nielsen, M., & Autz, N. (2018). Religious/secular distance: How far apart are teenagers and their parents? Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 10, 288-295. doi: 10.1037/rel0000205 (PDF)

Parnell, K. J. & Hammer, J. H. (2018). Deciding on couple therapy: The role of masculinity in relationship help-seeking. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19, 212-222. doi: 10.1037/men0000098 (PDF)

Singley, D. B., Cole, B. P., Hammer, J. H., Molloy, S., Rowell, A., & Isaaco, A. (2018). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Paternal Involvement with Infants Scale. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19, 167-183. doi: 10.1037/men0000094 (PDF)

Parent, M. C., Hammer, J. H., Bradstreet, T. C., Schwartz, E. N, & Jobe, T. (2018). Men’s mental health help-seeking behaviors: An intersectional analysis. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12, 64-73. doi: 10.1177/1557988315625776

Hammer, J. H., & Brenner, R. E. (2017). Disentangling gratitude: A theoretical and psychometric examination of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test- Revised Short (GRAT-RS). Journal of Personality Assessment, 14, 1-10. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2017.1344986 (PDF)

McDermott, R., Levant, R. F., Hammer, J. H., Hall, R., McKelvey, D., & Jones, Z. (2017). Further examination of the factor structure of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF): Measurement considerations for women, men of color, and gay men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64, 724-738. doi: 10.1037/cou0000225 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., & Toland, M. D. (2017). Internal structure and reliability of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI-29) and brief versions (ISMI-10, ISMI-9) among Americans with depression. Stigma and Health, 2, 159-174. doi: 10.1037/sah0000049 (PDF)
Note: Learn more about the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale-9 (ISMI-9).

Hammer, J. H., & Vogel, D. V. (2017). Development of the Help-Seeker Stereotype Scale. Stigma and Health, 2, 121-136. doi: 10.1037/sah0000048 (PDF)
Note: Learn more about the Help-Seeker Stereotype Scale (HSSS).

Beck, N. C., Hammer, J. H., Robbins, S., Tubbesing, T., Menditto, A., & Pardee, A. (2017). Highly aggressive women in a forensic psychiatric hospital. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 45, 17-24. (PDF)

Cragun, R. T., Sumerau, J. E., Blyde, V. L., Mann, M., & Hammer, J. H. (2016). Perceived marginalization, educational contexts, and (non)religious educational experience. Journal of College and Character, 17, 242-254. doi: 10.1080/2194587X.2016.1230758 (PDF)

Brewster, M. E., Hammer, J. H., Sawyer, J., Eklund, A., & Palamar, J. (2016). Perceived experiences of atheist discrimination: Instrument development and evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 557-570. doi: 10.1037/cou0000156 (PDF)

Isacco, A., Hammer, J. H., Shen-Miller, D. S. (2016). Outnumbered, but meaningful: The experience of male doctoral students in professional psychology training programs. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 10, 45-53. doi:10.1037/tep0000107 (PDF)

Langston, J., Hammer, J. H., & Cragun, R. (2015). Atheism looking in: On the goals and strategies of organized nonbelief. Science, Religion, and Culture, 2, 70-85. doi:10.17582/journal.src/2015/ (PDF)

Cragun, R. T., & Hammer, J. H., Harder, B. M., Fernandez, C., & Nielsen, M. (2015). The NonReligious-NonSpiritual Scale (NRNSS): Measuring everyone from Atheists to Zionists. Science, Religion, and Culture, 3, 36-53. doi: 10.17582/journal.src/2015/ (PDF)

Alfred, G. C., Hammer, J. H., & Good, G. (2014). Male student veterans: Hardiness, psychological well-being, and masculine norms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15, 95-99. doi: 10.1037/a0031450 (PDF)

Vogel, D. L., Wester, S. R., Hammer, J. H., & Downing-Matibag, T. (2014). Referring men to seek help: The influence of gender role conflict and stigma. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15, 60-67. doi: 10.1037/a0031761 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., & Vogel, D. V. (2013). Assessing the utility of the willingness/prototype model in predicting help-seeking decisions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 83-97. doi: 10.1037/a0030449 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., Vogel, D. V., & Heimerdinger-Edwards, S. (2013). Men’s help seeking: Examination of differences across community size, education, and income. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14, 65-75. doi: 10.1037/a0026813 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., Cragun, R. T., & Hwang, K. (2013). Measuring spiritual fitness: Atheist military personnel, veterans, and civilians. Military Psychology, 25, 438-451. doi: 10.1037/mil0000010 (PDF)

Tucker, J. R., Hammer, J. H., Vogel, D. L., Bitman, R. L., & Wade, N. G. (2013). Disentangling stigmas: Are mental-illness and help-seeking stigmas distinct. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 520-531. doi: 10.1037/a0033555 (PDF)

Vogel, D. L., Bitman, R. L., Hammer, J. H., & Wade, N. G. (2013). Is stigma internalized? The longitudinal impact of public stigma on self-stigma. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 311-316. doi: 10.1037/a0031889 (PDF)

Vogel, D. L., Armstrong, P. I., Tsai, P-C., Wade, N. G., Hammer, J. H., Efstathiou, G., Holtham, E., Kouvaraki, E., Liao, H-Y., Shechtman, Z., & Topkaya, N. (2013). Cross-cultural validity of the Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH) scale: Examination across six nations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 303-310. doi: 10.1037/a0032055 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., Cragun, R., Hwang, K., & Smith, J. (2012). Forms, frequency, and correlates of perceived anti-atheist discrimination. Secularism & Nonreligion, 1, 43-67. doi: 10.5334/ (PDF)

Cragun, R., Kosmin, B., Keysar, A., Hammer, J. H., & Nielsen, M. (2012). On the receiving end: Discrimination toward the non-religious. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 27, 105-127. doi: 10.1080/13537903.2012.642741 (PDF)

Cragun, R. T., Henry, P., Homan, C. P., & Hammer, J. H. (2012). Whom do people dislike more: Atheists or cultists? Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 8, 1-19. (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., Springer, J., Beck, N., Menditto, A., & Coleman, J. (2011). Seclusion and restraint: Relationship with childhood sexual and physical abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 567-579. doi: 10.1177/0886260510363419 (PDF)

Hwang, K., Hammer, J. H., & Cragun, R. (2011). Extending the religion-health research to secular minorities: Issues and concerns. Journal of Religion and Health, 50, 608-622. doi: 10.1007/s10943-009-9296-0 (PDF)

Cragun, R. T., & Hammer, J. H. (2011). “One person’s apostate is another person’s convert”: What terminology tells us about pro-religious hegemony in the sociology of religion. Humanity and Society, 35, 159-175. doi: 10.1177/016059761103500107 (PDF)

Vogel, D., Heimerdinger-Edwards, S., Hammer, J. H., & Hubbard, A. (2011). “Boys don’t cry”: Examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self-stigma and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 368-382. doi: 10.1037/a0023688 (PDF)

Heimerdinger-Edwards, S., Vogel, D., & Hammer, J. H. (2011). Extending sexual objectification theory and research to minority populations, couples, and men. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 140-152. doi: 10.1177/0011000010383894 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H., & Good, G. (2010). Positive psychology: An empirical examination of beneficial aspects of endorsement of masculine norms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 11, 303-318. doi: 10.1037/a0019056 (PDF)

Hammer, J. H. & Vogel, D. L. (2010). Men’s help seeking for depression: The efficacy of a male-sensitive brochure about therapy. The Counseling Psychologist, 38, 296-313. doi: 10.1177/0011000009351937 (PDF)
Note: Download a copy of the male-sensitive brochure developed for this study.

Spanierman, L. B., Neville, H. A., Liao, H., Hammer, J. H., & Wang, Y. (2008). Participation in formal and informal campus diversity experiences: Effects on students’ racial democratic beliefs. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1, 108-125. doi: 10.1037/1938-8926.1.2.108 (PDF)

Conference Proceedings

Wilson, S.A., Huth, A., Lamer, S., Hammer, J.H., Whitwer, M. (2024, June). Investigating perceptions that predict mental health related help-seeking in first-year engineering students. American Society for Engineering Education, Portland, OR.

Wilson, S.A., Hammer, J.H., & Henderson, J.A., Frizell, S.S. (2024, June). Improving the validity of an instrument to measure mental health help-seeking beliefs for diverse institutional contexts. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Portland, MD.

Lamer, S., Wilson, S.A., Hammer, J.H., & Whitwer, M. (2024, June) Mental health in first-year engineering: Identifying beliefs that influence help-seeking. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Portland, MD.

Wilson, S.A., Hammer, J.H., Blaber, I.P., Hancock, J.M., & Pitcher, G.R. (2023, September). Delivery of mental health training across a College of Engineering. European Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Dublin, IR. (PDF)

Ban, N., Mensah, L.O., Whitwer, M., Hargis, L.E., Wright, C.J., Hammer, J.H., & Wilson, S.A. (2023, June). “It’s very important to my professors…at least most of them”: How messages from engineering faculty and staff influence student beliefs around seeking help for their mental health. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD. (PDF)

Whitwer, M., Wilson, S.A., & Hammer, J.H. (2023, October). Engineering mental health and help-seeking – Analysis of national data from the Healthy Minds Study, IEEE ASEE Frontiers in Education, College Station, TX. (PDF)

Armstrong, I., Dailey, D., Wilder, K., Blackburn-Lynch, W., Hammer, J.H., & Wilson, S.A. (2022, Summer). Investigating mental health distress and help-seeking perceptions in first-year engineering students. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Minneapolis. (PDF)

Ban, N., Shannon, H., Wright, C.J., Miller, M.E.*, Hargis, L.E., Usher, E.L., Hammer, J.H., & Wilson, S.A. (2022, Summer). Identifying common perceived stressors and stress-relief strategies among undergraduate engineering students. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Minneapolis. (PDF)

Miller, M.E.*, Wright, C.J., Hargis, L.E., Usher, E.L., Hammer, J.H., & Wilson, S.A. (2022, Summer). Identifying mental health related help-seeking beliefs in undergraduate engineers. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Minneapolis. (PDF)

Wilson, S.A., Hammer, J. H., & Usher, E. L. (2021, Summer). Faculty experiences with undergraduate engineering student mental health. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, United States. (PDF)

Wright, C. J., Miller, M. E.*, Hargis, L. E., Usher, E. L., Hammer, J. H., & Wilson, S. A. (2021, Summer). Identifying engineering students’ beliefs about seeking help for mental health concerns. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA. (PDF)

Hargis, L. E., Wright, C. J., Miller, M. E.*, Usher, E. L., Hammer, J. H., & Wilson, S. A. (2021, Summer). Relationship between mental health concerns and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors among engineering students. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, United States. (PDF)

Book Chapters

Brenner, R. E. Egli, M. M., & Hammer, J. H. (2022) Disentangling mental illness and help-seeking stigmas. In D. L. Vogel & N. G. Wade (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Stigma and Mental Health. (pp. 31-51). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108920995 (Link) (PDF)

Langston, J. A., Hammer, J. H., Cragun, R. T., & Sikes, M. E. (2017). Inside the minds and movement of America’s nonbelievers. In R. T. Cragun, L. Fazino, & C. J. Manning (Eds.), Organized secularism in the United States, Religion and its others: Studies in religion, nonreligion, and secularity (pp. 191-220). Boston, MA: De Gruyter. (Link)

Cragun, R., Hammer, J. H., & Smith, J. M. (2014). North America. In S. Bullivant (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (pp. 601-621). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (Link)

You are welcome to download a copy of my Curriculum Vitae and review my peer-reviewed publications on Google Scholar or ORCID via my Bio page.